A CASE FOR THE 12 HOUR SABBATH


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NOTES - Go Back To 12 Hour Day

(note *1*)  (Genesis 32:22, 24. Verse 22 indicates that Jacob "rose up that NIGHT" and in verse 24, "...Jacob was left alone; and there wrestled a man with him until THE BREAKING OF THE DAY" (or "until the coming up of DAWN" ---from the book "The Five Books of Moses", p. 155). Verse 26 reads: "And let me go, for THE DAY BREAKETH..." (or "for DAWN has come up"--"The Five Books of Moses", p.155). And in verse 31, after they have wrestled, we see that, "...as he passed over Penu'-el the SUN ROSE UPON HIM...")

(note *2*) ("Break of day" (my note: listed under "Day")...auge..."brightness, bright, shining, as of the sun"; hence, "the beginning of daylight," is translated "break of day" in Acts 20:11." (p, 147) -(Vine's Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words).

If a day began at evening, then sunset (not dawn) would be considered the break of day.

(note *3*) ("Noon...mesembria...lit., "middle-day" (mesos, "middle," and hemera, "a day")...Acts 22:6..." (p, 434) - (Vine's Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words).

("And it came to pass, that, as I made my journey, and was come nigh unto Damascus about *+noon, suddenly there shone from heaven a great light round about me.") (Acts 22:6)

*From Strong's 3314, meaning: ("...midday...")  +From Thayer's, meaning: ("...midday...(as respects time) noon: Acts xxii 6...").   

If a day began at sunset and was 24 hours long, "Noon" would not be the "middle-day". Early morning would be the middle of  the day.  If a day ran from sunrise to sunrise, "middle-day" would be about 6:00 PM.

"The day appears to begin at sunrise also in Mark 16:2 which says: "And very early on the first day of the week they (the two Marys) went to the tomb when the sun had risen." According to the sunset reckoning the "very early" part of the first day of the week would be the hours immediately following the end of the Sabbath at sunset--what we would call Saturday night. Mark however, takes pains to explain what he means be "very early on the first day of the week," namely, not the early hours of the night immediately following the close of the Sabbath at sunset, but "when the sun had risen."...Mark saw the need to clarify what he meant by "very early on the first day of the week," namely, "when the sun had risen." This time reference presupposes a sunrise reckoning because according to the sunset reckoning, by the time the sun had risen it was the middle and not the early part of the first day." (Chapter 5 - 'The Time of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection').

(note *4*)  (THE SPRING OF THE DAY IS AT DAWN OR DAYBREAK:  (A) "And they AROSE EARLY: and it came to pass about the SPRING OF THE DAY (KJV note: DAWN), that Samuel called Saul..." (1 Samuel 9:26).------OTHER VERSIONS: (A-1) "At DAWN Samuel called to Saul..." (Today's English Version). (A-2) "At the BREAK OF DAY Samuel Called to Saul..." (The Jerusalem Bible). (A-3) "At DAY-BREAK Samuel called to Saul..." (James Moffatt).

(note *5*)  ("...Woe unto us! for the DAY GOETH AWAY, for the SHADOWS OF THE EVENING are STRETCHED OUT...Arise, and let us go by NIGHT..." (Jeremiah 6:4-5).-------OTHER VERSIONS: (a) "...Despair! The DAYLIGHT is FADING already, the EVENING SHADOWS LENGTHEN...To arms! We will launch the attack under cover of DARK..." (The Jerusalem Bible). (b) "...Pity the DAY is DECLINING, the SHADOWS ARE LENGTHENING!...Come on, let us attack by NIGHT..." (James Moffatt). (c) "...It's too late, the DAY is ALMOST OVER, and the EVENING SHADOWS ARE GROWING LONG..." (Today's English Version).----(Note: After the SHADOWS of EVENING have arrived, the DAY is said to be GOING AWAY, FADING, DECLINING and ALMOST OVER, but it HAS NOT ENDED nor has a NEW DAY BEGUN as it would have if a new day began at sunset).

If a day ran from sunrise to sunrise it would not be declining or almost over until close to the following morning.

(note *6*)   (The "Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Bible" says, "The ORIGINAL meaning of the word "DAY" is the PERIOD OF DAYLIGHT, FROM SUNRISE TO SUNSET, AS DISTINCT FROM THE NIGHT, THE PERIOD OF DARKNESS ...in this sense the "DAY" is said to "decline" (Jer.6:4) or to "be far spent" (Lk. 24:29 in the late afternoon, and is FOLLOWED by NIGHT. Hence the EARLIER sequence, "DAY and NIGHT..." (P. 497).

If a day ran from sunrise to sunrise it would not be far spent until close to the following morning.

(note *7*)  (Please read all of Mark Chapter 4. Here we find Jesus teaching throughout the course of a day, and in verse 35 we read: "And the SAME DAY, when the EVEN WAS COME, he saith unto them, Let us pass over unto the other side." Based on the standard teaching, this "EVEN" should NOT be the "SAME DAY", but it should be the NEXT DAY if a NEW DAY begins at EVENING).

(note *8*)  ( John Chapter 20 (please read the whole chapter). Here on the FIRST DAY OF THE WEEK, Mary Magdalene discovers that Our Lord has RISEN FROM THE DEAD early that day. The account takes us through the course of the day, and in verse 19 JOHN writes, "Then the SAME DAY AT EVENING, being the FIRST DAY OF THE WEEK. . ." ("EVENING"-same word as "EVEN" in Mark 1:32). Again, we find that the "EVENING" is NOT the NEXT DAY, but it is still the FIRST DAY OF THE WEEK. From the book (A Harmony of the Gospels, p. 286), another commentator states, ". . . one passage in John (20:19), when compared with Luke 24:29, 36, makes it NECESSARY to understand that JOHN used the ROMAN METHOD (my note: God's Method) in this instance. It was toward evening and the DAY HAD DECLINED according to Luke, when Jesus and the disciples drew near to Emmaus. Here he ate supper and, "rising up that very hour," the disciples returned seven miles to Jerusalem and told these things to the eleven who were together. But while they were narrating these things Jesus appears to them. Now John, in mentioning this very appearance of Jesus (20:19), says that it 'WAS EVENING ON THAT DAY, THE FIRST DAY OF THE WEEK", i.e., evening of the day when Mary Magdalene had seen the Lord. But with the Jews the EVENING BEGAN THE DAY. Hence, JOHN, here at least, is BOUND TO MEAN THE ROMAN DAY (my note: God's day). It was the EVENING OF THE SAME DAY IN THE MORNING OF WHICH MARY HAD SEEN JESUS. THIS APPEARS CONCLUSIVE. John DID use the ROMAN method (my note: God's method) here, MAY HAVE DONE SO ALWAYS. . .").

(note *9*)  ("The day was either the PERIOD OF SUNLIGHT, CONTRASTED WITH THE NIGHT (see **John 11:9) or the whole period of twenty four hours, ALTHOUGH NOT DEFINED AS SUCH IN THE BIBLE." ("Oxford Companion to the Bible", p. 744). -- Note: A God defined 24 hour day is not found in the scriptures.

("**Jesus answered. Are there not TWELVE HOURS IN THE DAY? If any man walk in the DAY, he stumbleth not, because he seeth the LIGHT of this world. But if a man walk in the NIGHT, he stumbleth, because there is NO LIGHT in him." (John 11:9)." Here, Jesus confirms the fact that LIGHT and DAY are married, and that NIGHT and NO LIGHT (Darkness) belong in a separate category, as Genesis 1:4 indicates: ". . . and God DIVIDED the LIGHT from the DARKNESS. . ." In addition, Jesus makes it clear that there is ONLY 12 HOURS in a DAY. NOWHERE in the scriptures does Jesus or anyone else ever say, "ARE THERE NOT 24 HOURS IN THE DAY?")

("The observance of the day before the Sabbath and before other special days is not mentioned in the written law and shows the development of the oral law of which the Pharisees were such strong proponents". (The Interpreter's One-Volume Commentary on the Bible, p. 539).

(note *10*)  ("DAY" (Hebrew, "yom"): In the Bible, the SEASON OF LIGHT (Gen. 1:5), LASTING "FROM DAWN (LIT. "THE RISING OF THE MORNING") TO THE COMING FORTH OF THE STARS " (The Jewish Encyclopedia) . As you can see, even though Genesis 1:5 is used as an example, this definition shows that a DAY BEGINS AT DAWN AND ENDS AT DARK. -- ("Thou makest darkness, and it is night..." (Psalm 104:20). ("O my God, I cry in the day time, but thou hearest not; and in the night season, and am not silent." (Psalm 22:2). ("I will bless the LORD, who hath given me counsel: my reins also instruct me in the night seasons." (Psalm 16:7).

"The Hebrew language had no word for HOUR and those who spoke and wrote it no idea whatever of such a period of time...In place of hours, which meant nothing to him, the ancient Hebrew often lived and thought in terms of SEASONS...he cried unto God in the NIGHT SEASON. In the first chapter of Genesis God has seemingly himself determined this division of time, for He has placed the sun and the moon in the firmament of heaven "to Divide the Day from the Night"...When Hebrew writers refer to the ONLY TIMES OF DAY RECOGNIZED BY THEM, they do so in terms of the NATURAL divisions of MORNING, NOON and EVENING, times which, of course, varied in length depending upon the actual seasons of the year..." (Life and Language in the Old Testament, p. 33,36,37).

(note *11*)  ( "So we LABOURED in the work: and half of them held the spears FROM THE RISING OF THE MORNING TILL THE STARS APPEARED (THIS IS A FULL DAY-- see note *10*)...Let every one with his servant lodge within Jerusalem, that in the NIGHT they may be a guard to us, and LABOUR on the DAY." (Nehemiah 4:21-22)-----OTHER VERSIONS: (a) "...This was how I and my men did our WORK; half held their spears from DAWN until the STARS APPEARED...Let each of you, man and servant alike, keep inside Jerusalem to provide us with guard duty at NIGHT and with LABOUR during the DAY..." (James Moffatt). (b) " So every DAY, from DAWN until the STARS CAME OUT AT NIGHT, half of us WORKED on the wall while the other half stood guard with spears...I told the men in charge that they and all their helpers had to stay in Jerusalem at NIGHT, so we could guard the city at NIGHT as well as WORK in the DAYTIME..." (Today's English Version). (c) "...So we went on with the WORK from BREAK OF DAY till the STARS APPEARED...Let each man with his servant, spend the NIGHT inside Jerusalem: in this way we can employ the NIGHT in watching and the DAY in WORKING..." (The Jerusalem Bible).

("Before the EXILE the Hebrews divided the day into MORNING, NOON, and EVENING...they also described it in terms of four periods: SUNRISE (Gen.19:15, "when MORNING DAWNED" (cf. Luke 24:1; 19:23, "when the Sun had Risen"; 32:31, "the Sun Rose" (cf. Mark 16:1), the heat of the DAY (Gen. 18:1; 1 Sam.11:11), the cool of the Day (Gen. 3:8), and Sunset (Gen. 15:12, 17; Judg. 19:8, ("until the DAY DECLINES"). (The Eerdman's Bible Dictionary, p. 266).

(The DAY in ANCIENT times was similarly divided into THREE PARTS, MORNING, NOONTIDE or "the heat of the day", and EVENING or "the cool of the DAY" (The Bible Companion, p. 311).

("In the Biblical period MOST Near Easterners BEGAN THEIR DAY WITH SUNRISE and ended it with sunset..." (Harpers Bible Dictionary, p. 761).

("According to the strict interpretation of the Mosaic law, every day begins with sunrise and ends with sunset..." (The Jewish Encyclopedia).

(It (day) sometimes means the time from daylight till dark. This popular meaning is easily discovered by the context, e. g. Genesis 1:5, 8:22), etc." (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Found under the word "Day").

("Many consider the word "day" used in Genesis chapter 1 to mean 24 hours. However, in Genesis 1:5 God himself is said to divide day into a smaller period of time, calling just the light portion "day."..." (Life-- How Did it Get Here?, p. 26).

("To ancient peoples the day began at sunrise and ended at sunset..." (The Mystery of Time, p. 14-15). 

('From dawn to dark'...was the ancient and ordinary meaning of a day among the Israelites; night, as being the time ' when no man can work ' (Jn. 9:4)....(Encyclopedia Biblica, pp. 1035-1036).

(note *12*)  ("Thus saith the Lord: If you can break my covenant of the DAY, and my covenant of the NIGHT, and that there should not be DAY and NIGHT in their SEASON;" (Jeremiah 33:20).

(note *13*) ("And GOD made two great lights; the GREATER LIGHT to RULE the DAY, and the Lesser light to RULE the Night (darkness): he made the Stars also." (Genesis 1:16).

(note *14*)  ("To HIM that made great lights...The SUN to RULE by DAY...The Moon and the Stars to RULE by Night (darkness)..." (Psalm 136:7-9).

(note *15*)  ("Thus saith the LORD, which giveth the SUN for a LIGHT BY DAY, and the ordinances of the moon and of the stars for a light by Night (darkness)... " (Jeremiah 31:35).

(note *16*) ("And at EVEN, when the SUN DID SET, they brought unto him all that were diseased, and them that were possessed with devils." (Mark 1:32).

(note *17*)  ("And he read therein before the street that was before the water gate from the *morning until +midday, before the men and the women, and those that could understand; and the ears of all the people were attentive unto the book of the law." (Nehemiah 8:3). -- *Some translations say "early morning" (American Standard, Webster, Amplified, etc.)

+From Strong's 4276, meaning ("...a halving or the middle...half...mid (-day).  4276 is combined with 3117 (yom -"Day") to indicate the middle of the day.

(note *18*)  ("And it came to pass, when *+midday was past, and they prophesied until the time of the offering of the evening sacrifice, that there was neither voice, nor any to answer, nor any that regarded." (1 Kings 18:29).

*From Strong's 6672, meaning: ("...noon: -- midday, noon...)   +From Brown-Driver-Briggs, meaning: (midday, noon...when the sun mounts its highest...noon as a specif. time of day, 1 K 18:29).  (Note: noon/midday is the same in both the Older and New Testaments. (see note *3*) -- The Hebrew word  for"noon" and "noonday" found throughout the Old Testament is the same Hebrew word as "midday" in 1 Kings 18:29).

(note *19*)  ("And he arose early in the morning on the fifth day to depart; and the damsel's father said, Comfort thine heart, I pray thee. And they tarried until afternoon, and they did eat both of them. 9 And when the man rose up to depart, he, and his concubine, and his servant, his father in law, the damsel's father, said unto him, Behold, now the day draweth toward evening, I pray you tarry all night..." (Judges 19:8-9).

(note *20*)  ("And God called the light Day..."And the evening and the morning were the first day." (Genesis 1:5) -- Note:  God calls the light day (not night) and classifies "evening" as "day" (Light).  Evening is a time when the sun's light continues to rule as the day declines but does not end until night ("...and the darkness he called Night." - Genesis 1:5).

(note *21*)  (In "The Five Books of Moses", Genesis 1:5 is translated, "God called the Light: Day! and the Darkness he called Night! There was SETTING, there was DAWNING: one Day." (p.13). Commenting in his notes on this verse, the author states, "SETTING.....DAWNING: The Heb. terms erev and boker are rather more specific than the usual "evening" and "**++morning". Elsewhere I have used "SUNSET" and "DAYBREAK". (p.13).

** Strong's 1242 (...dawn (as the break of day); generally morning..."   ++Brown-Driver-Briggs, "dawn...end of night...beginning of day...note also the formula...and evening came and then morning Gn 1:5...i.e. the day ended with evening, and the night with morning..." 

("...The Israelites regarded the morning as the beginning of the day; in the evening the day declined 'or' went down,' and until the new day ('morning')...it was necessary to 'tarry all night' (cp Judg. 19:6-9)...Nu. 11:32 'all that day and all the night and all the next day'). Not till post-exilic times do we find traces of a new mode of reckoning which makes day begin at sunset and continue till the sunset following... ...Thus it was in the nature of things that morning,...midday,...and evening...should be distinguished, and equally so that morning should be spoken of as the rising of the morning, the breaking of the day (Gen. 19:15)...or the rising of the sun (Gen. 19:23)..." (Encyclopedia Biblica, pp. 1035-1036).

(note *22*)  (In Job 38:4-11, God communicates the following to Job:

(4) "Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if thou hast understanding.

(5) Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest? or who hath stretched the line upon it?

(6) Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? or who laid the corner stone thereof;

(7) When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?

(8) Or who shut up the sea with doors, when it brake forth, as if it had issued out of the womb?

(9) When I made the cloud the garment thereof, and thick darkness a swaddlingband for it,

(10) And brake up for it my decreed place, and set bars and doors,

(11) And said, Hitherto shalt thou come, but no further: and here shall thy proud waves be stayed?..."

Throughout these verses we see that God is the one who "laid the foundations of the earth".  And in verse 12 God says:

(12) "Hast thou commanded the morning since thy days; and caused the dayspring to know his place;..."

The primary meaning of the word "morning" (as defined by Strong's) used in verse 12,  is: “1242 boqer bo'-ker... properly, dawn (as the break of day)..."  This is the same word for "morning" used in Genesis 1:5.

"Dayspring" is the second important word that God uses in verse 12.  'Easton's Bible Dictionary' defines "dayspring" as: “the dawn of the morning; daybreak..”

Now, if we compare Genesis 1:1-5 to Job 38:4-12, we see that “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth“ and He “laid the foundations of the earth".  In both scenarios we find God laying down the foundations of the earth.  In both cases, He is speaking.  And both times He uses the word "morning" which means “dawn (as the break of day).  And He clarifies what He means by calling this "morning" period the "dayspring" (obviously the spring of day), which means “the dawn of the morning; daybreak..” 

Carefully note, since God only asks Job about the "morning" ("dawn" "daybreak") and not a full day, "evening" is not mentioned at allYes "dawn" was the start of a day in the "foundations" or "beginning" of the earth.  And it still is today.

In the very same book of Genesis (Chapter 32, as mentioned earlier), Jacob rose at "night" (V:22).  in verse 24, "...Jacob was left alone; and there wrestled a man with him until THE BREAKING OF THE DAY" (or "until the coming up of DAWN" ---from the book "The Five Books of Moses", p. 155).  Verse 26 reads: "And let me go, for THE DAY BREAKETH..." (or "for DAWN has come up"--"The Five Books of Moses", p.155).  The word for "day" found in verses 24 and 26 of Genesis Chapter 32 is the very same word found in Job 38:12, and is translated there as "dayspring".)

(note *23*) ("The hours of daylight were divided into twelve, and this division was more generally used, as is shown by Jesus' observation "Are there not TWELVE HOURS IN THE DAY? (John 11:9)...The first three of these periods are referred to by Jesus in his story of the labourers in the vineyard (Matt. 20:1-16); the reference to "the eleventh hour" in verses 6 and 9 does not mean sixty minutes before the twelfth hour, but a moment which was nearer to 6 p.m. than to 3 p.m. It is clear also from this that the labourers' working day covered the WHOLE PERIOD OF DAYLIGHT, for they began work "early in the Morning" and finished "when Even was come" (verses 1 and 8). (The Bible Companion, p. 311-312). Commenting on verse 8 of this same parable, another author writes: "Jewish law mandated that laborers be PAID THE SAME DAY, because the wages were often little more than sufficient for a Day's needs (Deut. 24:14-15)". (The IVP Bible Background Commentary - New Testament, p. 99). Notice in verse 8, when "EVEN WAS COME", the "Labourers" were called and PAID IN THE EVENING (LIGHT). So EVENING was still a part the SAME 12 HOUR DAY that began "Early in the Morning" as pointed out by 'The Bible Companion', and confirmed by 'The IVP Bible Background Commentary', when they state that the laborers had to be "PAID THE SAME DAY". This author also states that the "work began around Sunrise", and "the time of day was necessarily reckoned from Sunrise". (p. 98-99). The 'New Bible Dictionary' adds the following information concerning the hours of the day: "All three are mentioned in the parable of the labourers in the vineyard (Mt. 20:3,5), as also the ELEVENTH HOUR (v v. 6, 9), which has become proverbial for THE LAST OPPORTUNITY." (P. 496).

Other comments below on days not ending at "evening":

(...The Israelites regarded the morning as the beginning of the day; in the evening the day declined 'or' went down,..."(Encyclopedia Biblica, pp. 1035-1036). 

("Before the EXILE the Hebrews divided the day into MORNING, NOON, and EVENING...they also described it in terms of four periods: SUNRISE (Gen.19:15, "when MORNING DAWNED" (cf. Luke 24:1; 19:23, "when the Sun had Risen"; 32:31, "the Sun Rose" (cf. Mark 16:1), the heat of the DAY (Gen. 18:1; 1 Sam.11:11), the cool of the Day (Gen. 3:8), and Sunset (Gen. 15:12, 17; Judg. 19:8, ("until the DAY DECLINES"). (The Eerdman's Bible Dictionary, p. 266).

"The DAY in ANCIENT times was similarly divided into THREE PARTS, MORNING, NOONTIDE or "the heat of the day", and EVENING or "the cool of the DAY" (The Bible Companion, p. 311).

"...When Hebrew writers refer to the ONLY TIMES OF DAY RECOGNIZED BY THEM, they do so in terms of the NATURAL divisions of MORNING, NOON and EVENING, times which, of course, varied in length depending upon the actual seasons of the year..." (Life and Language in the Old Testament, p. 33,36,37).

"Day...(a) The time of daylight from sunrise to sunset, as contrasted to Night (Gen. 1:5; 8:22; Acts 20:31; etc). The day in this sense was divided into morning, noon and evening... (The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, p. 783).

(note *24*) ("And this is what you are to sacrifice on the slaughter-site: year-old lambs, TWO FOR EACH DAY, regularly. The FIRST lamb you are to sacrifice at DAYBREAK (Morning--KJV), and the SECOND lamb you are to sacrifice BETWEEN THE SETTING-TIMES (Even--KJV)..." (Exodus 29:38-39). (Note: TWO lambs EVERY DAY. One at DAYBREAK , which is MORNING and one BETWEEN THE SETTING-TIMES, which is EVENING. The SECOND lamb is sacrificed in the EVENING which is still part of the SAME DAY THAT STARTED AT DAYBREAK. EVENING IS NOT THE NEXT DAY, because the command is to sacrifice TWO LAMBS IN THE SAME DAY. (An author's note on page 618 states: BETWEEN THE SETTING TIMES: Between the time that the Sun is below the horizon, no longer visible, and total darkness. An idiomatic rendition would be "at TWILIGHT". (The Five Books of Moses).           

SOURCES

(1) History of the Christian Religion and Church (by Wilhelm August Johann Neander--Rose's translation from the first German Edition).

(2) The Oxford Companion to the Bible (by Bruce Manning Metzger -- Oxford: N.Y. -- Oxford University Press 1993).

(3) The Jewish Encyclopedia (by Joseph Jacobs -- Ktav 1964).

(4) Reader's Digest A B C's of the Bible (N.Y., N.Y. : Reader's Digest Association, c 1991).

(5) Everyday Life in Old Testament Times (by Eric William Heaton -- Scribner 1956).

(6) The New Ungers Bible Handbook (by Merrill F. Unger - Revised by Gary N. Larson - Moody Press, Chicago, c 1966, 1984)

(7) Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ (by Harold W. Hoehner. Zondervan Publishing House, 1978).

(8) Natural History, 11, lxxix (Pliny the Elder).

(9) New International Biblical Commentary (by David John Williams -- Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers 1990).

(10) Harmony of the Gospels (by A.T. Robertson -- c 1922, 1950 "The Citizens Fidelity Bank and Trust Co").

(11) Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament (Found at "Bible Study Tools" at: http://bible.crosswalk.com/Commentaries/RobertsonsWordPictures/ (See John 20:19). Copy Right c Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960) also -(http://www.e-sword.net/).

(12) Encyclopedia of Jewish Religion (Edited by R.J. Zwi Werblowsky and Geoffrey Wigoder, 1986)

(13) Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Bible (A translation and adaptation of A. Van Den Born's Woordenboek, By L.F. Hartman -- McGraw 1963).

(14) Vine's Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words (by W.E. Vine, Merill F. Unger, William White Jr. - Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nashville, Atlanta, London, Vancouver. c 1984, 1996.)

(15) What is a Jew? ( by Rabbi Morris N. Kertzer -- Collier Books, N.Y., c 1960, 1953, The World Publishing Co.).

(16) New Catholic Encyclopedia - Vol :2 (McGraw Hill Book Company. c 1967 by the Catholic University of America, Washington D.C.)

(17) The Lion Encyclopedia of the Bible (Tring, Herts, England; Batavia, IL USA: Lion Publishing 1986).

(18) NIV Study Bible (10th Anniversary Edition. c 1995 by Zondervan Publishing House - General Editor Kenneth Barker.)

(19) Almanac of Bible Facts (by Anna Trimiew and Gary Burge. c 1996 Publications International, Ltd. - Lincolnwood, Illinois.)

(20) Babylonian Menologies and the Semitic Calendars (by S. Langdon, Oxford University Press, 1933.)

(21) The Time of The Crucifixion and The Resurrection (by Samuele Bacchiocchi -- Found at web site: http://www.biblicalperspectives.com/books/crucifixion/ )

(22) 735 Baffling Bible Questions Answered (by Larry Richards, Revell, 1993).

(23) Peoples of the Old Testament World (Edited by Alfred J. Hoerth, Gerald L. Mattingly & Edwin M. Yamauchi; Forward by Alan R. Millard -- Grand Rapids, MI : Baker Books, c 1994).

(24) Babylon (by Joan Oates; Thames and Hudson, 1979.)

(25) The Exact Sciences in Antiquity (by O. Neugebauer, 1957, Brown University Press, 1969, Dover Publications, Inc. New York.)

(26) Festival Days: A History of Jewish Celebrations (by Chaim Raphael - N.Y. : Grove Weidenfeld, 1990).

(27) The Jewish Festivals: History & Observance (by Hayyim Schauss - Shocken 1938).

(28) Judaism : Between Yesterday and Tomorrow (by Hans Kung, Pub. Crossroad 1992.)

(29) Every Person's Guide to Judaism (by Steven J. Einstein & Lydia Kukoff - VAHC Press - N.Y.N.Y - 1989 Pub.).

(30) This is the Torah (by Alfred J. Kolatch - Jonathan David Publishers 1988).

(31) The Eerdman's Bible Dictionary (Edited by Allen C. Myers, Grand Rapids, Mich. Eerdman's , 1987).

(32) Rabbinic Essays (by Jacob Z. Lauterbach. Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 1951).

(33) Unger's Bible Dictionary "Day", page 108.

(34) The Bible Sabbath: Seventh Day or First Day? (Found at: http://www.biblestudy.org/basicart/sabbsdf.html). -- Distributed by the 'Bible Sabbath Association' at: http://www.biblesabbath.org).

(35) The Five Books of Moses --The Schocken Bible: Volume 1 (by Everett Fox. - Schocken Books c 1995).

(36) Bible Advocate (Magazine) -- May 1995 Issue.

(37) The Light of Truth (Magazine) -- May 1995 Issue (by John W. Trescott).

(38) Sabbath Sentinel (Magazine) -- May-June 1997 Issue.

(39) Peake's Commentary on The Bible (Edited by S. Peake, M.A., D.D. - Thomas Nelson & Sons, New York)

(40) The New Bible Dictionary - Second Edition, Inter-Varsity Press, Leicester, England, Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Wheaton, Illinois, U.S.A. c 1962, 1982.

(41) A Literary History of Early Christianity (by Charles Thomas Crutwell, M.A., Vol. 1, AMS Press, New York).

(42) Handbook of Biblical Chronology (by Dr. Jack Finegan, Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, MA c 1998)

(43) Webster's New International Dictionary (Second Edition).

(44) Life and Language in the Old Testament (by Mary Ellen Chase - W.W. Norton & company, New York, 1962. c. 1955 by Mary Ellen Chase.)

(45) Halley's Bible Handbook (by Henry H. Halley - Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan. c. 1962, 1965.)

(46) Reformed Theology and Six-Day Creation (by Kenneth L. Gentry) --Found at web site:

www.chalcedon.edu/report/98sep/Gentry_Reformed_Creation.html

(47) Eerdman's Handbook to the Bible (Edited by David Alexander and Pat Alexander, c 1973, 1983 by Lion Publishing, Sandy Lane West, Oxford, England).

(48) A Dictionary of Life in Bible Times

(49) The Bible Companion (Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 1985)

(50) Harpers Bible Dictionary (by Paul J. Achtemier, Harper & Row Publishers, Society of Biblical Literature, San Francisco, 1985)

(51) Ancient Israel - It's Life and Institutions (by Roland De Vaux, McGraw 1961)

(52) The New Testament -- (Translated from the Latin Vulgate, St. Anthony Guild Press, Paterson, New Jersey,

1941).

(53) Bible Manners and Customs (Nelson's Ilustrated) (by Howard Frederic Voss, T. Nelson Publishers, Nashville, TN, c 1999)

(54) Expository Dictionary of Bible Words (by Larry Richards, Zondervan, 1985, Grand Rapids, Michigan)

(55) The IVP Bible Background Commentary - New Testament (by Craig S. Keener, InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, Illinois 60515, c 1993).

(56) The Plain Truth (magazine) December 1958 issue (How Long Were The "Days" of Creation?, by Kenneth C. Herrmann).

(57) The Beginning of The World (by Henry M. Morris, Master Books, c 1991, El Cajon, CA)

(58) The Lord's Day on A Round World (by Robert Leo Odom, The Southern Publishing Association, Nashville, Tennessee, c 1946)

(59) The Good News (magazine) April 1963 issue (The Jews Don't Observe Passover!, by Ernest L. Martin).

(60) The Beginning of The Jewish Day, by P.J. Heawood -- JQR, XXXVI, (The Dropsie College For Hebrew and Cognate Learning, Philadelphia, 1945-1946)

(61) The Sources of the Creation Story - Gen. 1:1 - 2:4, (by Julian Morgenstern, AJSL, XXXVI, (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago)

(62) International Standard Bible Encyclopedia ( found at web site http://www.searchgodsword.org/enc/isb/view.cgi?number=T2551

(63) Supplementary Studies in The Calendars of Ancient Israel, (by Julian Morgenstern, HUCA, X, Hebrew Union College Press, Cincinnati, 1935).

(64) Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia (Leon L. Bram, Vice - President and Editorial Director, c. 1971).

(65) Sacred Seasons - A Sourcebook for the Jewish Holidays (by Ronald H. Isaacs, Jason Aronson, Northvale, NJ, 1997).

(66) The Oxford History of the Biblical World (Edited by Michael D. Coogan, Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford, 1998).

(67) An Introduction to Early Judaism (by James C. Vanderkam, - William B. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, MI c 2001).

(68) Dead Sea Scrolls Today (by James C. Vanderkam, - Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, MI 1994).

(70) Sketches of Jewish Social Life (by Alfred Edersheim, 1876 - found at: http://www.piney.com/EdFam15.html

(71) The Book of Jubilees (by Solomon Zeitlin, - JQR, XXX, The Dropsie College For Hebrew and Cognate Learning, Philadelphia, 1939-1940).

(72) The Book of Jubilees or The Little Genesis (by R. H. Charles, D. LITT., D.D., -- Translated from the Ethiopic text, - Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, London, 1917).

(73) Some Stages of the Jewish Calendar, - in Solomon Zeitlin's Studies in the Early History of Judaism (by Solomon Zeitlin, - KTAV Publishing House, Inc., New York, 1973).

(74) Sabbath - The Day of Delight (by Abraham E. Millgram, - The Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 1944, second impression 1945).

(75) Commentary on the Old Testament, The First Book of Moses (by C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, reprinted may 1975).

(76) The Study of the Types (by Ada R. Habershon, -- Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1961).

(77) A Commentary on the Book of Genesis, Part 1, tr. Israel Abrahams (by U. Cassuto, - The Magnes Press, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1944).

(78) Life-- How Did it Get Here? (Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc. International Bible Students Association, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A., c 1985).

(79) The Book of Genesis - Chapter 1-17 (by Victor P. Hamilton, - William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1990).

(80) The Mystery of Time (by Harry Edward Neal, - J. Messner, New York, 1966).

(81) The Torah - A Modern Commentary (Edited by Gunther Plaut, - Union of American Hebrew Congregations, New York, 1981).

(82) The Observance of the Sabbath and the Festivals in the First Two Centuries of the Current Era According to Philo, Josephus, the New Testament, and the Rabbinic Sources (The Collected Articles of Jacob Mann, - M. Shalom Ltd., Israel, 1971).

(83) Authoritative Quotations on The Sabbath and Sunday (Compiled by The Voice of Prophecy, P.O. Box 55, Los Angeles, California 90053).

(84) Commentary on the Whole Bible (Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset and David Brown, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan).

(85) When Does The Sabbath Begin? Morning or Evening? --Appendix, "Does the Sabbath Begin at Noonn?-- 'Refutation of Argument #1) (by Greg L. Price, 1995, Still Waters Revival Books, 4710-37A Ave. Edmonton AB Canada T6L 3T5).

(86) Studies in Genesis One (by Edward J. Young -- Professor of Old Testament at Westminster Theological Seminary).

(87) The Law of God, as Contained in the Ten Commandments, Explained and Enforced (by William S. Plumer, -- Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1864).

(88) Exposition of Genesis, Vol. 1 (by C. H. Leupold).

(89) Encyclopedia Biblica, Vol. 1, A to D, (Edited by T. K. Cheyne, M.A., D.D. and J. Sutherland Black, M.A., LL. D., -- New York, The Macmillan Company, 1899, 1903 London: Adam and Charles Black.

(90) The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, Volume 2 (by M.C. Tenney).

(91) The Interpreter's One-Volume Commentary on the Bible (Edited by Charles M. Laymon, Abingdon Press--Nashville and New York, c. 1971).

(92) The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible (George Arthur Buttrick, Dictionary Editor, Abingdon Press -- New York and Nashville, c. 1962).

(93) http://bible.crosswalk.com/ (c. 1995-2003) -- (Infomation listed under (69) "Quotes").

(94) The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia (Edited by Isaac Landman, Universal Jewish Encyclopedia Co., Inc, New York, c. 1943).

(95) As a Mighty Stream: The Progress of Judaism Through History (by Julian Morgenstern, The Jewish Publication Society of America, c. 1949).

(96) Does Easter Really Commemorate the Resurrection? (by Herbert W. Armstong - Excerpt from his early writings).

(97) Thayer's Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (by Joseph H. Thayer, Reprinted from the fourth edition originally published by T. & T. Clark, Edinburgh, 1896, with Strong's numbering added by Hendrickson Publishers, fifth printing - January 2002.).

(98) The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (by F. Brown, S. Driver, and C. Briggs - Francis Brown, D.D., D. Litt., with the cooperation of S.R. Driver, D.D., Litt.D. and Charles A. Briggs, D.D., D. Litt. --Reprinted from the 1906 edition originally published by Houghton, Mifflin and Company, Boston - Strong's numbering was added by Hendrickson Publishers, fourth printing -- January 1999).

(99) The JPS Torah Commentary - Genesis (Commentary by Nahum M. Sarna, The Jewish Publications Society, Philadelphia, New York, Jerusalem, c.1989) - The Traditional Hebrew Text with the New JPS Translation.-

(100) The Encyclopedia of Jewish Knowledge (Edited by Jacob De Haas, Behrman's Jewish Book House, New York, 1934.

(101) The Book of Jewish Customs (by Harvey Lutske, Jason Aronson, Inc., Northvale, New Jersey, London, c 1986 by Harvey Lutske.

(102) The Temple, Its Ministry and Services (by Alfred Edersheim,( http://www.godrules.net/bibles.html)

(103) Vincent's Word Studies (http://www.e-sword.net/)

(104) John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible (http://bible.crosswalk.com/) and also (http://www.freegrace.net/gill/)

(105) Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Whole Bible (http://www.e-sword.net/)

(106) Hebrew Union College Annual, Volume XXXIX (Editor, Matitiahu Tsevat, Cincinnati, 1968-- c. 1969).

(107) Essential Judaism, A Complete Guide to Beliefs, Customs, and Rituals (by George Robinson, Pocket Books, a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc. c. 2000 by George Robinson.).

(108) A History of Jewish Time - Book Review - Calendar and Community: A History of  The Jewish Calendar, Second Century BCE -- Tenth Century CE. (Judaism - Winter - Spring 2003, by Ron H. Feldman)

(109) The Shorter Catechism of the Westminster Assembly Explained and Proved from Scripture (by Thomas Vincent, written (seventeenth century).

(110)  Reading Genesis (by Professor David Blumenthal)  http://www.js.emory.edu/BLUMENTHAL/GenIntro.html

(111)  History of the Jews - Vol. 1, From the Earliest Period to the Death of Simon the Maccabee (135 B.C. E.) (by Professor H. Graetz, The Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, c. 1891).

(112)  Aid to Bible Understanding (Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania, c. 1969, 1971).

(113)  Scofield Reference Notes (Gen. 1:5) - Scofield Bible, (http://www.e-sword.net/).

(114)  Geneva Bible Translation Notes, (http://www.e-sword.net/).

(115)  The Encyclopedia of Talmudic Sages (by Gershom Bader (1868 - 1953), translated by Solomon Katz, Jason Aronson Inc., Northvale, NJ, - London, c. 1988).

(116)  The Bible Sabbath (by Ned S. Ashton, Review and Herald Publishing Association, Washington, D.C.)

(117)  Barne's Notes on the Bible (by Albert Barnes, (http://www.e-sword.net/).

(118)  Adam Clarke's Commentary on the Bible (by Adam Clarke, (http://www.e-sword.net/).

(119)  John Wesley's Explanatory Notes (by John Wesley, (http://www.e-sword.net/).

(120) Smith's Bible Dictionary (by William Smith LL.D., (http://www.e-sword.net/).

(121) Strong's Hebrew and Greek Dictionaries (http://www.e-sword.net/)

(122) Give us a King (by Everett Fox, Schocken Books, New York, c. 1999)

(123) Scripture quotations are taken from the Complete Jewish Bible, copyright © 1998 by David H. Stern. Published by Jewish New Testament Publications, Inc. www.messianicjewish.net/jntp. Distributed by Messianic Jewish Resources. www.messianicjewish.net. All rights reserved. Used by permission.

(124)  Bible Translation Abbreviations:  (ALT) Analytical-Literal Translation, (AMP) Amplified Bible, (ASV) 1901 American Standard Version, (BBE) 1965 Bible in Basic English, (Bishops) Bishop's Bible, 1568, (CBC) Complete Jewish Bible, (CEV) Contemporary English Version, (CSB) Holman Christian Standard Bible, (Darby) 1889 Darby Bible, (DRB) 1899 Douay-Rheims Bible, (EMTV) English Majority Text Version, (ESV) English Standard Version, (FBM) Five Books of Moses, (GB) 1599 Geneva Bible, (GNB) Good News Bible / Today's English Version, (GW) God's Word, (ISV) International Standard Version, (JBK) Jerusalem Bible (Koren) 1982, (JBP) J. B. Phillips, (JGA) Julian G. Anderson's New Testament (JPS) Jewish Publication Society Bible, (KJV) King James Version, (KJ21) 21st Century King James Version, (KTC) Knox Translation - New Testament, (LITV) Literal Translation of the Holy Bible, (MKJV) Modern King James Version, (MOF) James Moffatt Translation, (MSG) The Message, (Murdock) James Murdock New Testament, (NAB) New American Bible, (NAS) New American Standard Version, (NBV) The New Berkeley Version, (NCV) New Century Version, (NEB) The New English Bible - New Testament, (NIV) New International Version, (NLT) New Living Translation, (NLV) New Life Version, (NJK) New King James Version, (NRS) New Revised Standard Version, (REB) Revised English Bible 1989, (RSV) Revised Standard Version, (SGAT) An American Translation - Smith / Goodspeed, (TCNT) Twentieth Century New Testament 1904, (TEV) Today's English Version / Good News Bible, (TJB) The Jerusalem Bible 1968, (TLB) The Living Bible, (Tyndale) 1534 Tyndale Bible, (WSB) Webster's Bible, (WmsNT) William's New Testament, (WNT) 1912 Weymouth New Testament, (WEB) World English Bible, (WORNT) Worsley's New Testament 1770, (YLT) 1898 Young's Literal Translation

(125)  Outline of Jewish Knowledge - Volume Three, (by Israel Goldberg and Samson Benderly, Bureau of Jewish Education, New York, c. 1931)

(126)  Outline of Jewish Knowledge - Volume One, (by Israel Goldberg and Samson Benderly, Bureau of Jewish Education, New York, c. 1929)

(127)  Clockwork Man - The story of time, its origins, its uses, its tyranny (by Lawrence Wright, Horizon Press, New York)

(128)  A Dictionary of the Bible, Vol. 1, (Edited by James Hastings, M.A., D.D., New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1908, c. 1898, by Charles Scribner's Sons)

(129) The Sabbath in Puritan New England, (by Alice Morse Earle, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1902.  c. 1891 By Charles Scribner's Sons)

(130)  The Rise and Fall of the Judaean State, (by Solomon Zeitlin, c. 1962 by The Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia,  First Edition)

(131  (Bible Doctrine, a Treatise on the Great Doctrines of the Bible, (compiled by a committee appointed by Mennonite General Conference, Daniel Kauffman, Editor.  Published by Mennonite Publishing House, Scottdale, Penn'a, 1914)

(132)  The Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls: The Second Princeton Symposium on the Dead Sea Scrolls, (by James H. Charlesworth, Chapter title : "What's in a Calendar? (by Shemaryahu Talmon).  Published 2006 Baylor University Press).

(133)  A Hebrew chrestomathy; or, Lessons in reading and writing Hebrew (by William Henry Green, Professor in the Theological Seminary at Princeton, N.J., New York: John Wiley& Son, Publishers, 2 Clinton Hall, Astor Place, c 1870).

(134)  Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament (Including the Biblical Chaldee) (by William Gesenius: Translated by Edward Robinson, D.D., Boston: Published by Crocker and Brewster, 47 Washington street, 1844)

(135) Seventh Day Baptists in Europe and America, Volume 2, (Printed for The Seventh Day Baptists General Conference, by the American Sabbath Tract Society, Plainfield, New Jersey, 1910)

(136) Genesis - In Advance of Present Science, A Critical Investigation of Chapters I to IX, London (by Kegan Paul, Trench & Co., 1 Paternoster Square, 1883).

(137)  Diary of Thomas Burton, ESQ. Member in the Parliaments of Oliver and Richard Cromwell, From 1656 to 1659 (by John Towill Rutt, in Four Volumes, Vol. II, London, Henry Colburn, New Burlington-Street, 1828)

((138)  Interpreters Concise Commentary, (by Robert Houston Smith, Herbert G. May, John William Wevers, Charles T. Fritsch, H. Neil Richardson. Edited by Charles M. Laymon, Abingdon Press, Nashville, c. 1971 and 1983 by Abingdon Press, third printing 1984)

(139)  Oriental Customs, Customs and Manners of the Eastern Nations, (by Samuel Burder, D.D., London: Printed for Thomas Tegg, 73, Cheapside, H. Obiffin and Co., Glasgow, J Tegg and Co., Dublin, Sydney and Hobart Town, Printed by J. Haddon, Castle Street, Finsbury. (1839).

(140)  Nave's Index - Digest of the Holy Scriptures, (by Orville J. Nave, AM., DD., LL. D., Henry Frowde, London, Edinburgh, Glasgow & Belfast., 1900,

 

ALL GLORY AND HONOR TO GOD IN HEAVEN







                rsaq.rendraglienybdelipmocdnanettirwevobanoitamrofnieht.pblf

            Written and compiled by Neil Gardner